Published on May 19th, 2014 | By: email@example.com
Branches of CeramicsPublished on May 19th, 2014 | By: firstname.lastname@example.org
[Image above] Credit: x@ray; Flickr CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
There are two major categories of glasses and ceramics: traditional and advanced.
Traditional applications include consumer products like dinnerware or ovenware and construction products like tile or windows. Most of these applications have been in use for many years and therefore markets are mature with single digit growth.
Advanced applications take advantage of specific mechanical/electrical/ optical/biomedical/chemical properties of glass or ceramic materials and have entered the scene over the last several decades or so. The markets for some of these applications can have double digit growth.
The two major categories can be further broken down into more specific product classifications or market segments as seen in the tables below. One category that is sometimes hard to define is refractories. The production of most ceramics and glasses, as well as other commodities like metals, metal alloys, and cement, would not be possible without these materials. Refractories are critical materials that resist aggressive conditions, including high temperature (up to 3200°F), chemical and acid attack, abrasion, mechanical impact, and more.
Hence, refractory ceramics are little known, enabling materials that play a crucial role in allowing all commodity manufacturers to operate efficiently and profitably, thus supporting the global economy. Although refractories are typically categorized as a traditional application since the market is mature, their high performance makes them more of an advanced material. In fact, one global market estimate for advanced ceramics includes kiln furniture, which is estimated at around $211 million.
|Structural clay products||Brick, sewer pipe, roofing tile, clay floor and wall tile (i.e., quarry tile), flue linings|
|Dinnerware, floor and wall tile, sanitaryware (vitreous china plumbing fixtures), electrical porcelain, decorative ceramics|
Brick and monolithic products used in iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, glass, cements, ceramics, energy conversion, petroleum, and chemicals industries, kiln furniture used in various industries
|Glasses||Flat glass (windows), container glass (bottles), pressed and blown glass (dinnerware), glass fibers (home insulation)|
|Abrasives||Natural (garnet, diamond, etc.) and synthetic (silicon carbide, diamond, fused alumina, etc.) abrasives are used for grinding|
|Cements||Concrete roads, bridges, buildings, dams, residential sidewalks, bricks/blocks|
|Automotive||Diesel engine cam rollers, fuel pump rollers, brakes, clutches, spark plugs, sensors, filters, windows, thermal insulation, emissions control, heaters, igniters, glass fiber composites for door chassis and other components|
|Aerospace||Thermal insulation, space shuttle tiles, wear components, combustor liners, turbine blades/rotors, fire detection feedthrus, thermocouple housings, aircraft instrumentation and control systems, satellite positioning equipment, ignition systems, instrument displays and engine monitoring equipment, nose caps, nozzle jet vanes, engine flaps|
|Chemical/petrochemical||Thermocouple protection tubes, tube sheet boiler ferrules, catalysts, catalyst supports, pumping components, rotary seals|
|Coatings||Engine components, cutting tools, industrial wear parts, biomedical implants, anti-reflection, optical, self-cleaning coatings for building materials|
|Electrical/electronic||Capacitors, insulators, substrates, integrated circuit packages, piezoelectrics, transistor dielectrics, magnets, cathodes, superconductors, high voltage bushings, antennas, sensors, accelerator tubes for electronic microscopes, substrates for hard disk drives|
|Environmental||Solid oxide fuel cells, gas turbine components, measuring wheels/balls for check valves (oilfields), nuclear fuel storage, hot gas filters (coal plants), solar cells, heat exchangers, isolator flanges for nuclear fusion energy research, solar-hydrogen technology, glass fiber reinforcements for wind turbine blades|
|Homeland security/military||Particulate/gas filters, water purification membranes, catalysts, catalyst supports, sulfur removal/recovery, molecular sieves|
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