GOMD 2018 Award Speakers
George W. Morey Lecture
Arun Varshneya, CEO, Saxon Glass Technologies, Inc.
Title: Chemically strengthened glass: Science, technology and its future
Abstract: Glass can be chemically strengthened by immersion in a bath of molten alkali salt at temperatures lower than the glass transition temperature. An ion exchange between a small host ion, such as Na+, with a larger invading ion, such as K+, results in the development of high magnitude surface compression which strengthens the glass product. Except for some minor details, the science of stress development is now largely understood. Technology, on the other hand, is saddled with several nasty issues particularly relating to the degradation of the salt by increasing contamination and its periodic disposal. The consumer market is also somewhat difficult, particularly because of the perception that, upon strengthening, glass should be near-unbreakable. Despite these issues, many glass products are being, or could be, chemically strengthened. Examples are the high strength laminated windshields for aircraft cockpit, display windows in personal mobile electronic devices, packaging for parenteral drugs, vehicular transparencies, hurricane-resistant architectural windows, armor, large curved television, and thinner glass substrates for solar energy harvesting. This presentation reviews the science, the technology and the future outlook for chemically strengthened glass.
Biography: After securing his B.Sc. at Agra University (India) at an early age of 17, Arun Varshneya joined Sheffield University to obtain B.Sc. Tech (honors) in glass technology. In 1965, he migrated to the U.S. to get MS and PhD under the advisorship of the late Professor A.R. Cooper at Case Western Reserve University. Following graduation, he joined Ford Scientific Laboratories, Dearborn, MI working on chemical strengthening and moved, subsequently, to GE Lighting, Cleveland, OH. In 1982, he joined Alfred University as a professor of glass engineering science; retiring in 2010. Varshneya taught several glass engineering science courses and the required senior capstone course, “Engineering Operations”, teaching the much-needed business basics. In 1996, he co-founded “Saxon Glass Technologies, Inc.” and continues as CEO. The company delivers chemical strengthening service particularly for the pharma glass packaging, armor, and mobile phones. Their most known product is the Ionex® chemically strengthened borosilicate glass cartridge in the EpiPen auto-injector used to combat life-threatening anaphylaxis shock from severe allergic reaction to bee stings and peanuts.
Varshneya has 10 patents and 150 publications including a 13-page article on “Industrial Glass” in Encyclopedia Britannica. He is the solo author of the textbook, “Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses”, now in its second edition. He is the recipient of the 2007 President’s Award of the International Commission on Glass, the 2012 Cooper Distinguished Lecturer Award, and the 2015 Toledo Glass & Ceramics Award. Varshneya is a 2014 Distinguished Life Member of the American Ceramic Society, and a Fellow of the American Ceramic Society and the Society of Glass Technology. In 2011, the Agra media cited him as one of the 25 crowning stars of the city.
Stookey Lecture of Discovery
Wolfram Holand, head of fundamental research on glass and ceramics up to 2016, Ivoclar Vivadent AG; lecturer, ETH Zurich
Title: Combinations of different nucleation and crystallization mechanisms to develop tailor-made glass-ceramics
Abstract: Glass-ceramics possess the specialty of enabling the combination of different properties within one material. The development of glass-ceramics with high strength and high toughness combined with translucency and different colors lead to the discovery and subsequent commercialization of biomaterials for dental restoration. Other types of multicomponent glass-ceramics allow the combination of high mechanical parameters and preferred thermal properties or radiopacity. Thus, the development of bioactive glass-ceramics which are machinable as well as other technical products, e.g. machinable glass-ceramics with magnetic properties, was possible. The development of all these products is based on the selection of specific multicomponent chemical systems and the discovery of controlled nucleation and crystallization processes of the base glasses. The main focus of the lecture is the presentation of twofold or even multifold nucleation and crystallization mechanisms. Combinations of different internal (volume) mechanisms, e.g. the precipitation of mica and apatite, or surface + internal mechanisms, e.g. the crystallization of leucite and apatite, are demonstrated. Furthermore, the use of these reactions to develop products as biomaterials with preferred forming technologies, e.g. molding or machining is discussed.
Biography: Wolfram Holand has written his Doctoral thesis on solid state reactions in 1978 and his Habilitation thesis on glass-ceramics at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany, in 1985. He was Professor of glass chemistry at Jena University from 1989 to 1991. In autumn 1991, he started to work at IVOCLAR Ltd., Principality of Liechtenstein. From 1993-2002 Hoeland was head of the R&D glass chemistry and ceramics department and from 2003 to 2016, head of fundamental research on glass and ceramics at IVOCLAR VIVADENT AG. Hoeland is representative of Liechtenstein in the ICG. He was working as Chairman of TC 07 of the ICG from 1996 to 2004. Also, he was active as Vice-Chairman of TC 04. Wolfram Holand is author/co-author of 159 scientific publications. He holds 76 patents and is co-editor of nine textbooks and has written three monographs. Holand is a lecturer at ETH Zurich, Switzerland, in Chemistry. He is currently Associate Editor of the International Journal of Applied Glass Science.
Norbert J. Kreidl Lectures
Maxime Cavillon, Clemson University, USA
Title: Fabrication of intrinsically low nonlinearity glass optical fibers
Abstract: Optical nonlinearities plague scaling to higher output powers in modern high energy laser (HEL) systems. Amongst the most detrimental nonlinearities are stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering (SBS, SRS), nonlinear refractive index n2-related wave mixing phenomena, and transverse mode instability (TMI). As opposed to the complex micro-structured large mode area (LMA) fibers typically developed to mitigate these parasitic effects, this present work advocates another approach instead; namely attacking the nonlinearities through the enabling materials from which they originate. Conventional circular core-clad fibers comprising an oxyfluoride core in the alkaline earth fluoride (AEF2) – alumina (Al2O3) – silica (SiO2) glass family with a pure silica cladding are fabricated using the molten core method and their properties discussed. AE- and Al2O3-doped silica glasses participate in the formation of intrinsically low Brillouin and Raman scattering materials, while fluorine lessens the linear and nonlinear refractive indices, as well as the thermo-optic coefficient. Fibers exhibiting reductions of 6-8 dB in the Brillouin gain coefficient, 1-2 dB in the Raman gain coefficient, and 2-3 dB in the thermo-optic coefficient relative to conventional silica fibers will be presented.
Biography: Maxime received an engineering degree in Materials Science from the Department of Materials Science and Sustainable Development at ESIREM (Ecole Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de Recherche en Matériaux), Dijon, France, in 2014. In January 2015, he joined Dr. Ballato’s research group at Clemson University, SC, USA, as a PhD student, from which he will graduate in May 2018 with a PhD degree in Materials Science and Engineering. His thesis work focused on the investigation of relationships that exist between glass compositions and their optical properties in order to reduce parasitic nonlinear effects in optical fibers for high power laser applications. Maxime has co-authored 14 scientific papers to date.
Tobias Bechgaard, Aalborg University, Denmark
Title: Temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry analysis of high-temperature silicate glasses
Abstract: Temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TM-DSC) has not been widely applied in the silicate glass community, since commercial instruments have typically been restricted to ~700°C. In this talk, we discuss how to obtain high quality data on silicate samples with high glass transition temperatures (Tg) by adjusting the experimental parameters considering Tg and liquid fragility (m) of the probed glass. Furthermore, we show how to determine m in tectosilicate CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses using the thermal relaxation caused by the temperature modulation to estimate the structural relaxation time. Fragility decreases with increasing silica content, consistent with trends observed from direct viscosity measurements and standard DSC using the activation energy for structural relaxation. TM-DSC thus succeeds in reproducing the trend in m, whereas the absolute values of m are systematically lower for high-m compositions and vice versa for low-m compositions. Finally, we discuss the use of TM-DSC to probe the so-called intermediate phase in silicate glasses, featuring isostatic topology with minimal structural relaxation upon heating. Our data suggests that within the tectosilicate system, the relaxation behavior can be tuned by changing the network topology. We thus infer that TM-DSC could be used to search for silicate glasses with minimal volume relaxation during heating.
Biography: Tobias K. Bechgaard is currently a PhD student in Prof. Smedskjaer’s group in the Department of Chemistry and Bioscience at Aalborg University, Denmark. Tobias’ research mainly focuses on applying temperature-modulated DSC to understand the dynamics and relaxation behavior of silicate glasses. He is the first author of five journal publications and received a student poster award at the PACRIM12 conference in Hawaii (2017).
Darshana and Arun Varshneya Frontiers of Glass Science Lecture
Setsuhisa Tanabe, professor, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Japan
Title: Glass and rare-earth elements
Abstract: Many functional glasses, either passive or active, contain one or multiple kinds of rare-earth ions as a very important key element. This lecture focuses on active glasses and fibers doped with rare-earth elements, in which 4f electrons play critical role, as well as the impact of their photonic functions on many applications such as optical amplifications in fiber telecommunication. The inventions of neodymium- or erbium-doped glass lasers by E. Snitzer in 1960s can be regarded as triggers of later developments of many photonic devices of doped glasses and progress in understanding of their spectroscopy sciences. These inventions later led also to the invention of Er-doped fiber amplifier, EDFA in late 1980s. Invention of fluoride glasses led to invention of uv or visible upconversion fiber lasers, PDFA and TDFA while that of chalcogenides led to mid-IR optics and light sources. Scientific progress in rare-earth spectroscopy, and technologies of doped glasses and fibers in recent 60 years have been more than dramatic. In this lecture, I will explain my personal perspectives on glass and rare-earth elements, which have given me exciting experiences during my carrier on material research.
Biography: Setsuhisa Tanabe is a full professor at the Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University since 2008. He received his PhD at the Department of Industrial Chemistry, Kyoto University in 1993. After working as an assistant professor, he was promoted to an associate professor in 2001 and to a full Professor in 2008 all in Kyoto University. He is the author of 220 original papers, 25 book chapters, and 40 review papers on rare-earth doped luminescent materials for upconversion lasers, optical fiber amplifier for telecommunication and LED phosphors. Prof. Tanabe has served as a plenary, keynote or invited speaker at more than 100 international conferences. He was the chair of Technical Committee on Optoelectronic Glasses (TC20) of International Commission on Glass (ICG) during 2003- 2011 and is now a member of Steering Committee of ICG since 2013. He was a visiting scientist at Rutgers University, NJ during 1996-1997 and was an invited professor at University of Rennes I, France in 2010 and 2016. Tanabe is currently an Associate Editor of Journal of Luminescence.
Darshana and Arun Varshneya Frontiers of Glass Technology Lecture
Xiang-Hua Zhang, research professor, University of Rennes 1, France
Title: Recent research trends of chalcogenide glasses and ceramics for infrared photonics and energy applications
Abstract: Chalcogenide glasses have been studied since several decades for infrared transmission and the most important commercial application is infrared optics for thermal imaging. Compared to the most used germanium optics, chalcogenide glass optics have two important features, which are the lower cost, especially for high volume applications, and the lower sensibility to temperature variation. Molded chalcogenide optic is one of the key elements, which are boosting the massive application of thermal imaging. These current and future applications necessitate cost reduction and materials with higher performance. Recent innovation in glass fabrication process and in the development of highly efficient optics, for example, with gradient refractive index will be presented.
Chalcogenide glasses have relatively narrow and adjustable bandgap width. Through controlled crystallization, it is possible to obtain composite semiconducting materials with intern and self-organized p-n junctions, resulting in exceptional photoelectric properties. Their potential applications for energy conversion via photocatalytic or photovoltaic effect will be summarized.
Biography: Since October 2002, Xiang-Hua Zhang is research professor at CNRS (French National Center for Scientific Research) – University of Rennes I and director of the laboratory of glasses and ceramics. His prior professional experience was chief technology officer for UMICORE IR Glass from 2001-2002. Zhang earned his EMBA at ISM (International School of Management), Paris, New York in 1999, attained his Ph.D. at University of Rennes I, France in 1988, and was a Master student at University of Rennes I, France in 1985.
Prof. Zhang’s awards include the Research Award of the Foundation of the University of Rennes 1, November 2016; “Grand prix Foundation EADS(now Airbus)” of the French Academy of Sciences, November 2012; “Grand Prix YVAN PEYCHES” of the French Academy of Sciences, November 2004; “Innovation and defense award” given by M. Alain Richard (French Minister of Defense), January 1998; and, “IBM Young scientist” given by M. Hubert Curien (French Minster of Research) January 1990.
Zhang holds 17 patents, has presented 82 invited presentations in international congresses, and 305 publications in international peer reviewed journals.