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Instabilities in Glass

May 22, 2016  |  9 a.m. – 4 p.m.  |  Madison Concourse Hotel

Instructor: Arun Varshneya, Professor of Glass Science & Engineering, Emeritus, Alfred University


Brush up on Instabilities in Glass – 6 hour short course

Participants will learn about the commonly occurring instabilities in glass that plague melting and forming: the underlying causes and the potential remedies. Professor Varshneya explains in his tutorial style the basic science of bubble/seed control, transition metal ion color instability, inhomogeneities, water content, devitrification, phase separation, nonlinear viscosity, property variations in the glass transition range, and glass stabilization.




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On or Before

April 22, 2016


April 22, 2016

Member $625


Nonmember $695


Student $375



Who Should Attend  

Arun Varshneya classroom

Professional engineers & scientists involved in glass melting/forming and troubleshooting; administrators who wish to rapidly acquire an understanding of glass production issues; and students who wish to append their education in materials engineering. Attendees will be provided a copy of the instructor-authored Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses, 2nd Edition


Course Description  

Development of bubbles/seeds in glass melts. Removal techniques.

Transition metal ion color instability. Redox equilibria. Use of the Ellingham diagram.

Inhomogeneities in glass. Measurement. Reducing inhomogeneity.

Viscosity upset:

  • Due to composition changes (alkali and water in glass)
  • Due to structural change from crystallization. What is crystallization?, how does it affect glass making?, when is it most likely?, where does it usually occur? Basic principles of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. Basic principles of crystal growth. Kinetics of crystallization, T-T-T diagram. What crystals to expect? Phase diagrams. How to avoid crystallization.
  • Due to  morphological change from phase separation (metastable liquid-liquid immiscibility).
  • What is metastable liquid-liquid immiscibility? How does it affect glass making? Basic thermodynamic principles of phase separation. Droplet phase separation and spinodal phase separation. Relation to workability issues.

Variation of properties in the glass transformation range

  • What is glass transformation? What are Tg and Tf?
  • What is viscoelastic behavior?
  • What is structural relaxation?
  • How do physical properties change with time?
  • How do permanent stresses generate in glass products? What is useful annealing?
Instructor Biography  


Arun Varshneya is president of Saxon Glass Technologies, retired as professor of glass science and engineering at Alfred University after 28 years as a teacher and researcher. Born in India, he completed his first bachelor’s degree at Agra University, then went to Sheffield University to pursue glass technology. He secured his MS and PhD under the advisorship of the late Professor Al Cooper of Case Western Reserve University. His R&D career spans nearly five decades, and his work contributed greatly toward the understanding of glass-to-metal seals, chalcogenide glasses, and glass chemical strengthening. Following 12 years of industrial experience at Ford Scientific Labs and GE Lighting, he joined Alfred faculty in 1982 and retired recently. As a teacher, he taught nearly all of the glass science and technology courses at Alfred including the engineering capstone that highlighted business basics for engineers. He is widely known internationally for his solo-authored textbook on glass entitled, “Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses.”  He has over 140 research publications and eight patents, and is an invited author of the 13-page “Industrial Glass” entry in Encyclopedia Britannica. His entrepreneurial business “Saxon Glass Technologies, Inc.” delivers glass chemical strengthening service for pharmaceutical and personal mobile communication device applications; the most recognized being the strengthened glass cartridge for the EpiPen.


Arun chaired the Glass Division in 1986 and was the 2008-2010 Treasurer of the Society. He is a 1982 Fellow of the Society and a 1999 Fellow of the UK Society of Glass Technology. In 2007, he received the “President’s Award” for outstanding lifetime contributions to the glass profession by the International Commission on Glass. He delivered the Cooper Award Lecture in 2012 and in April this year, he received the Toledo Glass & Ceramics Award.



Cancellation Policy

ACerS reserves the right to cancel a course up to 4 weeks before the scheduled presentation date. Please contact ACerS customer service at 1-866-721-3322 or 1-240-646-7054 to confirm that the course is happening before purchasing your airline tickets. ACerS is not responsible for the purchase of non-refundable airline tickets or the cancellation/change fees associated with canceling a flight.


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