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MCARE 2014 Plenary Speakers

MCARE 2014

 

Register now | Reserve hotel by January 27th | Symposia Grid

 

M. Stanley Whittingham 

M. Stanley Whittingham, SUNY distinguished professor, State University of New York, Stony Brook, USA 

 

Title: The LiFePO4 Story: Theory, Experiment and Characterization

 

Abstract: The olivine cathode, LiFePO4, presents a quandary. It is a very good electronic insulator and thought to react by a two-phase mechanism, yet has one of the highest power capabilities of any cathode material. NECCES therefore chose it as a model compound to understand the ultimate limitations of intercalation electrodes. A theoretical model was developed that could explain the high rates, based on a metastable single phase. Ex-situ and in-situ tools were employed to determine the kinetic vs thermodynamic pathways. Vanadium was chosen as an aliovalent substituent, because it has a very different neutron scattering factor to iron. Vanadium substitution was found to increase the single-phase regions and the rate capability consistent with a single-phase mechanism. When V+Fe>1>Li, the iron resides on the Li site forming clusters, e.g. sarcopside, keeping the diffusion tunnels open. This “simple” material is now understood, and this understanding will allow us to design new batteries.

 

Biography: Whittingham received his BA and PhD in chemistry from Oxford University. In 1972, he joined Exxon Research and Engineering Company to initiate a program in alternative energy production and storage. He discovered there the role of intercalation in battery reactions, which resulted in the first commercial lithium rechargeable batteries. After 16 years in industry, he joined the Binghamton campus as a professor of chemistry to initiate an academic program in materials chemistry. His recent work focuses on the synthesis and characterization of novel microporous and nano-oxides and phosphates for possible electrochemical and sensor applications. He was elected a Fellow of the Materials Research Society in 2013. In 2010 he received the NERM award of the American Chemical Society for his contributions to chemistry, and in 2012 he received the Yeager Award of the International Battery Association for his lifetime contributions to battery research. He is presently Director of the Northeastern Center for Chemical Energy Storage, a DOE Energy Frontier Research Center, based at Stony Brook University. He is Vice-Chair, Board of Directors of the New York Battery and Energy Storage Technology Consortium.

D. Yogi Goswami 

D. Yogi Goswami, director, Clean Energy Research Center, University of South Florida, USA 

 

Title: Thermal Energy Storage

 

Biography: Goswami is a University Distinguished Professor, the John and Naida Ramil Professor in the Chemical Engineering Department and Director of the Clean Energy Research Center at the University of South Florida. He conducts fundamental and applied research on Solar Thermal Energy, Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, HVAC, Photovoltaics, Hydrogen, and Fuel Cells. Dr. Goswami has served as an advisor and given testimonies on energy policy and the transition to renewable energy to the US Congress and the Government of India, as well as providing consultant expertise to the US Department of Energy, USAID, World Bank, NIST, among others. Goswami is the Editor-in-Chief of the Solar Energy journal, and Progress in Solar Energy. Within the field of RE he has published as author/editor 16 books, 16 book chapters, 6 conference proceedings and more than 300 refereed technical papers. He has delivered 51 keynote and plenary lectures at major international conferences. He holds 18 patents.

 

 

Silke Christiansen 

Silke Christiansen, director, Helmholtz-Center Berlin; group leader, Max-Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Germany

 

Title: Silicon nanowire based thin film solar cell concepts on glass for the >15% era

 

Abstract: Aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays for the efficiencies >15% – era are fabricated on multi-crystalline Si layers on glass using reactive ion etching with lithographic large area nano-patterning using densely packed polystyrene (PS) spheres. Diameter, length, density and shape of SiNWs can be tuned for highest absorptions (close to 90%) and as small as possible surface areas, since surfaces are prone to carrier recombination. Various SiNW cell concepts are: (i) a hybrid organic/inorganic cell with SiNWs absorber and a hole conducting polymer (PEDOT:PSS – encapsulation procedures for long term stability suggested); (ii) a semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor (SIS) cell with SiNW absorber, oxide (few Å Al2O3 by atomic layer deposition-ALD) ) tunneling barriers for charge carrier separation and a transparent conductive oxide (TCO – here: Al:ZnO, by ALD). Initial thin film solar cell prototypes reached open-circuit voltages of > 630 mV, short-circuit current densities of even ~ 30 mA/cm2 and efficiencies >13%. Analytics to improve materials / cells are: (i) electron beam induced current (EBIC) – charge carrier distributions; (ii) electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) – structural quality of the multi-crystalline Si layer; (iii) integrating sphere measurements, external quantum efficiency – optical properties and (iv) 4-point nano-probing of individual NWs – electrical properties. Novel electrodes (e.g. graphene, silver nanowire webs) to further improve the cells are shown.

 

Biography: Christiansen is the director at Helmholtz-Center Berlin for Materials & Energy Institute of Nanoarchitectures for Energy Conversion (Berlin) and group leader at the Max-Planck Institute for the Science of Light, of an ‘Independent Scientific Research Group for Photonic Nanostructures (Erlangen). She has over 270 peer-reviewed journal articles, 12 patents, and has presented over 120 invited presentations at professional seminars and conferences. Some of Christiansen’s current scientific interests include silicon thin film solar cells; solar cells and photonic devices based on nanostructures; nanostructuring using focussed ion beam technology and electron beam lithography;and vapor deposition of semiconductures and dielectrics using chemical and physical vapour deposition methods including atomic layer deposition. She earned her MS in 1991 and her PhD in 1997 from Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany.

  

Bor Z. Jang 

Bor Z. Jang, Co-founder and CEO, Angstron Materials, Inc. and Nanotek Instruments, Inc., USA 

 

Title: Graphene for Electrochemical Energy Storage

 

Abstract: Recent advancements in the use of graphene for supercapacitors (including electric double layer and redox-based), lithium secondary batteries, and high-power battery cells will be reviewed. Supercapacitors are now at the center stage for designers in the power electronics and electric vehicle (EV) industries. As compared to current lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors exhibit a much higher power density (can be charged or discharged at a much higher rate), significantly longer cycle life (250,000 vs. 2,000 cycles, for instance), and are much safer. However, conventional activated carbon-based symmetric supercapacitors are capable of storing an energy density of typically < 8 Wh/kg (cell), in contrast to the typically 150 Wh/kg of lithium-ion cells. Significant improvements to the energy density are being made when graphene is used as the electrode active material of a supercapacitor.

 

Biography: Jang, currently a professor of materials engineering at Wright State University, is also a co-founder and CEO, Nanotek Instruments, Inc. and Angstron Materials, Inc. Nanotek’s business focus includes the development of nano materials and energy technologies. AMI, a spin-off from Nanotek, is widely considered a leader in the production of graphene materials. Dr. Jang received his MS (1979) and PhD (1982), both in Materials Science and Engineering from MIT. He is a former professor at Auburn University, former Chairman of the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics at North Dakota State University, and former Dean of the College of Engineering and Computer Science at Wright State University. He was a Fulbright Scholar and Visiting Professor in Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, England, UK. Jang is a pioneer in graphene science and technology, discovering single-layer pristine graphene in 2002. Dr. Jang is recognized as world’s No. 1 graphene inventor (>150 graphene-related patents) according to a recent IP report on graphene. He is a co-inventor of 80+ patents on battery, fuel cell, and supercapacitor. He is an author or co-author for 150+ scientific papers, 240+ patent applications. Dr. Jang’s areas of research interest include mass production of graphene materials, applications of graphene (particularly for energy storage), high energy batteries, high-power batteries, and supercapacitors.

 

Taek-soo Kim 

Taek-Soo Kim, Executive Director, Professor, Korea Institute for Rare Metal; Korea Institute of Industrial Technology; University Of Science & Technology

 

Title: Recycling & Materialization of Rare Earths with Energy

 

Abstract: Rare metal becomes a critical issue due to its drastic increase in industrial demand as well as its rarity. In order to assure it, the recycling among various approaches is vividly conducted in both the scientific and industrial regimes due to a limitation of natural resources with the mass energy consumption. So that convergence in the processes is proposed by these authors, so called RECYMAT (recycling & Materialization). It means that the materials in-put for recycling move to industry without disposal. In this investigation, an example of RECTMAT is briefly introduced using the recycling of rare earth (Nd-Fe-B) magnets. Those are widely used in various industries such as voice coil motors in hard disk drive, magnetic generators for magnetic resonance imaging and electrical motors equipped in future vehicles. Looking at the process, Nd among Nd-Fe-B magnet scrap was selectively diffused into Mg in the liquid temperature range. On the other hand, Fe-B remains without any reaction with Mg, being a candidate element for high strength Fe-Nd base metallic glass. It will discuss the result obtained by the reaction parameters such as time, temperature, vacuum, etc.

 

Biography: Kim in Material Science is driving for rare materials development in both science and industry. According to his carrier in the area from 2005, he contributed to establish Korea Institute for Rare Metals (KIRAM) with KITECH and government on 2010. Most of his publication of 120 scientific papers and 20 patents includes the rare metal related issues. Industrial activity is a strong point of his carrier, since he runs various industry care and developing program in KIRAM. He also contributes to global communities of rare metals by organizing Rare material committee since 2011 in conjunction with a series of International symposium on Rare Metals hold every year and also a type of bi-lateral workshop China, Japan, Germany, and etc. In order to educate the rare metals systematically, Department of Rare Metals was firstly installed in University of Science and Technology (UST), Korea.

 

Suklyun Hong 

Suklyun Hong, Director, Graphene Research Institute and Dean, College of Natural Sciences, Sejong University

 

Title: Theoretical Study of Growth and Electronic Structure of Graphene and Graphene-based Nanostructures

 

Abstract: Recently, interesting subjects in the graphene research is graphene growth mechanism on various substrates and band gap engineering of pristine gapless graphene. First, we have performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations to understand the initial stage of graphene growth on the oxide substrates such as sapphire and magnesium oxide. The single carbon atom is found to bind favorably to an oxygen atom on the substrates. By increasing the number of adsorbed carbon atoms, we find that at least one carbon atom of the carbon structure binds to an oxygen atom of the surfaces due to strong bond between carbon and oxygen atoms. Combined with the experimental results, these theoretical findings may imply that carbon atoms on the oxide substrates form the nanocrystalline graphite structure within a limited area. Next, a periodically modulated graphene (PMG) generated by nano-patterned surfaces is reported to profoundly modify the intrinsic electronic properties of graphene. DFT calculations performed on a model of PMG reveals a possible tuning of a band gap by considering both strain caused by periodic bending of graphene and doping through chemical interactions with underlying substrate oxygen atoms.

 

Biography: Hong earned his B.S. (’88) and M.S. (’90) from Seoul National University in Korea. After then, he came to US and received his Ph.D. in Physics from University of Pennsylvania in 1995. He was Research Fellow at Georgia Institute of Technology during 1995-1997 and Research Associate at Oak Ridge National Laboratory during 1997-1999. In 1999, he joined in Department of Physics at Sejong University in Korea as a faculty member, where he is now Professor of Physics and Dean of College of Natural Sciences. Since 2010, he has been Director of Graphene Research Institute of Sejong University, which is the first government-funded institute of graphene research in Korea. His research area is theoretical condensed matter physics with an emphasis on electronic and structural properties of nanoscale low-dimensional materials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes. He has published more than 70 papers in professional journals.

 

Chikashi Nishimura 

Chikashi Nishimura, Hydrogen Materials Unit Director and Project Leader for Materials for Power Generation & Storage, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Japan 

 

Title: Non Palladium-based Alloy membranes for Hydrogen Separation and Production

 

Abstract: There is an growing interest on hydrogen selective membranes to be applied in hydrogen energy technology. Non-porous membranes for extraction and purification of hydrogen are key components for the establishment of hydrogen energy system. Non-porous membranes, which are essetially 100% hydrogen selective, can serve as a final clean-up mean of hydeogen gas before its use in PEFC, which requires hydrogen gas with ultra high purity. Alloys based on group V elements, vanadium, niobium and tantalum, have attracted the attention of researchers in chemical engineering and materials science, because of their extremely high hydrogen permeability. Japan has been leading the world in the research activities to develop hydrogen separation membranes based on these metals. Some alloy membranes have come to a stage of application test in catalytic membrane reactor syetems. Here, I present the current status of development of non palladium-based alloy membranes for hydrogen separation. Mainly, the works on vanadium alloys, in which the authors have long been engaged, will be presented.

 

Biography: Nishimura earned his Masters (’84) and PhD (’96) from WASEDA University, Japan. Previously he was the associate director of Eco-materials Center and the managing director of the Fuel Cell Materials Center at NIMS. He spent two years as a guest professor at Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. His research fields include materials for hydrogen energy applications, including metallic membrane materials, hydrogen storage alloys; structural intermetallics, hydrogen embrittlement in metallic materials; and hydrogen behaviors in metallic materials. 

Ned Stetson

Ned Stetson, Hydrogen Storage Program Manager, Fuel Cell Technologies Office, DOE, USA 

 

Title: Materials Development Synergies in Alternative and Renewable Energy Technologies

 

Biography: Stetson is the Hydrogen Storage Program Manager in the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office. Dr. Stetson has over 20 years of experience in hydrogen storage materials and technology development. For the U.S. DOE, Dr. Stetson manages the portfolio of hydrogen storage projects, that includes development of low cost carbon fiber composite overwrapped pressure vessels, hydrogen storage materials development and system engineering. Prior to joining the U.S. DOE, Dr. Stetson researched complex hydrides at the University of Geneva where one of his accomplishments was the synthesis and structure determination of BaReH9, the only reported compound with higher hydrogen to non-hydrogen atom ratio greater than that of methane. Dr. Stetson also spent over 10 years at ECD-Ovonics, where he was involved with the development of novel hydrogen storage materials and hydride-based hydrogen storage systems – these efforts resulted in the commercialization of the Portable Ovonic™ Solid Hydrogen Storage canister product line. As part of the commercialization effort, Dr. Stetson led the safety certification efforts for the products, including obtaining approvals from key regulatory authorities such as the U.S. Department of Transportation. He has also been active with code and standard developing agencies, such as the Compressed Gas Association, Society of Automotive Engineers, International Code Council and the International Standards Organization, where he has acted as the convener of the working group developing the international standard for portable metal hydride hydrogen storage systems.


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