CLAUDE DELMAS, EMERITUS CNRS RESEARCH DIRECTOR, BORDEAUX INSTITUTE OF CONDENSED-MATTER CHEMISTRY (icmcb), UNIVERSITY OF BORDEAUX, FRANCE
From Volta to Solar Impulse: A battery journey
From 30 years, the development of lithium-ion batteries has considerably changed your life. The gain in specific energy has allowed the development of mobile devices which are now used by billions of people. Today, the new goals concern the development of Electrical Vehicle and the storage of renewable energy. This requires very high energy batteries, 104 to 105 larger than the smartphone ones. The battery life time, the material availability and the price are now the main parameters which need to be considered. For mobile applications lithium-ion batteries seem to remain the best ones, while for stationary applications Na-ion batteries are very promising thanks the Na availability and its low the price.
In this challenge the materials of tomorrow for the electrodes and the electrolyte have to be discovered and optimized. This presentation will give a general overview of the basics problems which have to be solved with a special focus on layered materials which seems now the most promising ones. Even if the batteries concern electrochemistry, the materials problems have to be considered from solid state chemistry. Now electrochemistry is a new tool for the solid state chemist. Several examples will be presented from this viewpoint.
Robert Pilliar, Professor emeritus, Faculty of Dentistry and Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Canada
Porous Calcium Polyphosphates – Biodegradable Bone Substitutes and Beyond
Porous biodegradable calcium polyphosphate (CPP) implants are being studied for use in repair of skeletal defects due to disease, trauma or congenital abnormalities. CPP degrades in vivo releasing Ca2+ and PO43- ions that, if released at an appropriate rate, can serve as bone defect substitutes either in particulate or porous bulk form. Porous bulk substitutes can be custom-made to desired form using a novel additive manufacture + post-AM annealing treatment to allow fabrication of precisely-formed implants for press-fitting into defect sites where they become fixed through bone ingrowth with gradual resorption of CPP resulting, in time, in defect repair through new bone regeneration. For repair of synovial joints involving degraded articular cartilage and subchondral bone, novel biphasic implants are made with articular cartilage, formed in vitro by cell culture methods, attached to porous CPP substrates. The biphasic implants can be fitted into defect sites and in time will result in repair as a result of new tissue (cartilage and bone) regeneration. This approach can be extended to whole joint regeneration of certain joints thereby potentially offering an alternative to current practice of joint replacement using metal, ceramic, polymer implant components. The novel biphasic CPP-cartilage implants offer the possibility of regeneration rather than replacement of degraded tissues.
Serena M. Best, Cambridge Centre for Medical Materials, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge
Optimizing Bioactive Scaffolds: Cellular Response to Calcium Phosphate Composition and Architecture
There have been a number of examples of successful translation of bioceramics research into clinical products over the past 40 years. In the field of orthopaedic surgery, the development of calcium phosphates has shown particular potential, due to their similarity with the chemical composition of bone mineral. Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) has been of particular interest due to the ability to control composition by making chemical substitutions in the crystal lattice, which encourage bone repair. It is understood that even small changes in elemental- and phase “impurity” content can influence the biological response to the implant. Going forward, the field of tissue engineering (in bone grafting, for example) relies on the supply of high quality three dimensional scaffolds and their architecture contributes significantly to performance, This presentation will review historic and recent developments to understand the control of physical and chemical characteristics of bioactive ceramics for optimised biological response.