Learn how ceramic additive manufacturing can be an alternative to conventional manufacturing methods
April 29, 2019—8:30 a.m.–4:30 p.m. | Cleveland Airport Marriott, Cleveland, Ohio | Held in conjunction with Ceramics Expo 2019
Instructors: Shawn M. Allan, vice president, Lithoz America LLC; Holly Shulman, professor, Alfred University; Isabel Potestio, business developer, Lithoz GmbH; Jesse Blacker, product development manager and principal investigator, ExOne; Thomas Henriksen, president, Ceramco Inc.; Brandon Cox, technical staff member, Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies; Cathleen Hoel, senior materials scientist, General Electric Research Center; Iris Heibel, sales and product manager, CERIX – Bosch; and Dominik Reichartzeder, material development manager, Lithoz GmbH.
Ceramic additive manufacturing has the potential to radically change the market. The available manufacturing systems for ceramic have reached an advanced stage already and present a real alternative and a sensible addition to conventional manufacturing methods. This tendency of development has awakened great interest in industry and research, but also great uncertainty. It is therefore necessary to offer a deep insight into the subject to uncover the potential of the technology. The course provides its audience a varied program which contains a mixture of economic, application-specific and technology-based topics. The course includes the following topics:
- Session 1: General Overview
- Session 2: Technology Overview
- Session 3: Manufacturing, Applications and Markets
The course is specifically suitable for people from the fields of company strategy & development, research and development, universities, construction, design, production, supply chain management, product development, and innovation development.
Attendees will get an introduction into the topic of additive manufacturing (AM) ceramics and learn more about the economical and technical aspects of this new technology. Furthermore, attendees get an overview of state-of-the-art production methods as well as a deeper insight into opportunities and limitations of the new technology. Attendees will also gain a basic understanding of how to implement AM systems into their production chain, and learn what kind of applications are recommended for additive manufacturing. By the end of the course, attendees will understand the pros and cons of different technologies and will be able to use their gained knowledge in the strategic planning.
Bio: Allan is vice president of Lithoz America LLC. He earned his bachelor's degree in materials science and engineering from Alfred University and his master's degree from Georgia Tech. He has worked in materials for nearly 20 years, with focus on forming and sintering processes for a variety of ceramic materials. Allan is co-inventor of two patents and co-authored over 30 publications and conference presentations, resulting from a wide array of collaborative commercially-applied materials processing R&D.
Introduction and Course Objectives
The term "additive manufacturing" covers a wide range of technologies, each suited to a range of applications, materials, part sizes, and forms. The scope of additive technologies and particularly those relevant to ceramics will be addressed.
Bio: Shulman joined Alfred University in 2017 as professor of ceramic engineering. Her research interests include extreme environment materials and electro-ceramics. She has 30+ years experience in R&D, working on industrial challenges and innovations. Shulman founded Ceralink Inc. in 2000, and created a hands-on dynamic team to develop and test new products and processes. She previously worked for Kennametal Inc, Materials and Electrochemical Research, and Crown Research Institute in New Zealand. Shulman earned her Ph.D. in the ceramics laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, an M.S. in materials science at University of Pittsburgh, and a B.S. in ceramic engineering at Alfred University.
Overview of Ceramic Additive Manufacturing
There are many platform choices for Additive Manufacturing (AM) of ceramics, and it is important to understand how these different methods may impact the final product. AM is typically thought of as a forming process in ceramics. Ceramic properties can be extremely sensitive to forming method, and are affected by variables such as particle size, morphology and packing, organic additive type and quantity, as well as stresses applied during forming. This talk will identify the platforms and methods available for AM of ceramics and explain how they work. The advantages and limitations will be discussed, to enable down selection of the appropriate platform for specific applications. Finally, some thoughts will be shared on areas for advancement and future direction of Ceramic AM.
Bio: Potestio joined Lithoz in 2017 as business development manager where she is committed to searching for growth opportunities for the additive manufacturing of technical ceramics. She helps Lithoz in attracting, converting leads, and developing new customers as well as implementing strategies to raise market awareness on the industrialization of additive manufacturing in the technical ceramic field. She holds a B.Sc. in chemical engineering and a M.Sc. in materials engineering from Politecnico di Torino.
Ceramic Additive Manufacturing: Markets & Industries
Additive manufacturing (AM) for advanced ceramics is becoming increasingly used in several areas. As can already be seen in more mature sectors such as metal and plastic, AM technologies can be beneficial to any industry, but success will always depend on identifying the right application in combination with the right technology. Lithography-based technologies are well suited for ceramic applications where high precision and accuracy are required in combination with mechanical performances similar as classical formed ceramic parts. This lecture will focus on industries which have recognized these advantages early on, such as the casting and medical sector and how pioneers employ the LCM Technology to develop innovative functional applications.
Bio: Blacker is product development manager and principal investigator at ExOne. He has a bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Cincinnati and has served as senior program manager and technical principal investigator for numerous advanced materials research and development programs for both government and commercial customers, including numerous SBIR programs. Blacker is leading ExOne’s new material development efforts in the areas of ceramics, carbon, and refractory metals. He is currently principal investigator on a three-year, $1.5M contract with the U.S. Missile Defense Agency entitled “Three-Dimensional Printing of Silicon Carbide for Optical Structures."
Binder Jetting Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Materials.
Blacker will review the current state of the art in terms of binder jetting machine capabilities as it relates to ceramic powder printing, as well as discuss applications of binder jetting AM for ceramic materials.
Bio: Thomas Henriksen is president of Ceramco, an OEM manufacturer of custom technical ceramics of complex geometries for customer-specific applications, serving the aviation & aerospace, scientific instrumentation, energy R&D and production, and consumer products & wearable technology markets.
Experiences as a manufacturer of AM ceramics
As the first OEM in the USA to offer lithography-based ceramic manufacturing (LCM) to its customers, Ceramco has experience making parts for many applications, including space and aerospace, medical, and semiconductor. High-quality, high-performance ceramic materials such as aluminum oxide, zirconium dioxide, and silicon nitride are made using Lithoz CeraFab machines. Process capabilities are explored, limitations in size ranges are considered and also exceeded, and special techniques are developed from years of experience, giving industrial/commercial, university level, and individuals access to technical ceramics like never before. These manufacturing challenges are shared, to help the additive community understand what is so unique about producing parts in ceramic materials.
Bio: Cox is an R&D materials scientist at Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, located in Kansas City, Mo. Recently completing an M.S. in materials science from the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colo., Cox’s current responsibilities include materials characterization, as well as working to develop ceramic AM capabilities at the Kansas City National Security Campus. During his graduate research, he studied extrusion-based AM of electrical ceramic materials with a focus on functional grading between medium and high permittivity electrical ceramics for use in dielectric resonators. Cox's talk will focus on a general outline of the work he performed and the challenges and lessons learned from his experience.
Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing of Electrical Ceramics: Lessons Learned
Dielectric resonators (DRs) are ceramic components used primarily in wireless communication devices for their high relative permittivities and low loss properties, with much room for improvement aimed at maximizing their electrical properties. Additive manufacturing (AM) of ceramic materials opens the door for new methods of fabrication of these DRs to produce functionally graded permittivities. An extrusion-based ceramic AM technique has been employed to print structures with graded permittivity and custom geometries. Through a series of rheological studies, shear thinning ceramic suspensions of titanium dioxide and barium titanate have been developed to demonstrate this technique and improve the ability to print such structures. Co-sintering studies were performed to ensure that these materials are compatible during densification and sintering, with validation through microstructural characterization, to verify that the essential material properties meet the requirements of these DR devices. Graded permittivity parts have the ability to enable new electrical properties of DRs, which can be used as a host of new opportunities in the field of microwave dielectrics, such as DR oscillators and DR antennas.
Bio: Hoel is senior materials scientist for the General Electric Research Center, where she evaluates additive manufacturing as process to fabricate complex ceramic components. She identifies where additive ceramics can play a disruptive role in next generation technology and fabricating prototypes. Hoel previously worked on thermal barrier coatings to increase their capability in extreme environmental conditions. She also developed processes that enable forming complex ceramic components and helped scale and transition the technology to a production environment. Hoel analyzed binder decomposition reactions and how they influenced the physical properties of the ceramic for a stress model of the process. She also developed novel ceramic slurry compositions and methods for assessing variation across components. Hoel earned a Ph.D. in chemistry from Northwestern University and a B.A. in chemistry from Washington University in St. Louis.
Practical Considerations for Ceramic Additive Manufacturing from Conception to Production
This presentation is for anyone who wants to bring the benefits of additively manufactured ceramics to their products and customers. We will review how to down-select the most appropriate modality, how to determine if it is a viable business case, and what challenges need to be addressed for scaling up to production levels.
Bio: Heibel joined CERIX–grow platform GmbH – A Bosch Company in early 2017 as sales and product manager. She earned her engineering degree in material science from the University of Applied Science in Höhr-Grenzhausen, Germany. She has worked in sales of technical ceramic and composite materials for more than 20 years at various well-known companies.
Challenges for industrialization of additive manufacturing of oxide ceramics—Insights from a user
CERIX – A Bosch Company has used the lithographic additive manufacturing process (LCM) since 2014. First, the idea was to use this technology to accelerate projects for our core technology ceramic injection molding. Bosch’s goal is to produce high quality series products. When we introduce a new technology, it must have the capability for mass production. Therefore we carried out a machine capability study according to Bosch automotive standards. Depending on the market segment, an additional validation process is often requested.
Since our experience with the lithographic additive manufacturing process began, many challenges have been solved based on this study and more opportunities are arising. Last year additional equipment using a larger platform was installed to fulfill the market requirements. Today we also run the equipment for series production.
We will present the principles of this study and some results about the best practices.
Bio: Reichartzeder is currently manager of the material development group at Lithoz GmbH, where he focuses on new materials for the LCM process, improving the materials quality, and the continuous improvement of the LCM process. After finishing his studies in the field of mineralogy & crystallography at the University of Vienna and materials science at the Technical University of Vienna, Reichartzeder started his career in additive manufacturing (AM) of ceramics at Lithoz as a materials engineer—working on casting core materials, structural ceramics and dielectric ceramics for RF components. Within the Association of German Engineers (VDI), he contributes to the formulation of standards for the AM of ceramics, concerning technologies, materials and design rules.
Design for Ceramic Additive Manufacturing
Additive manufacturing of ceramics creates the possibility to manufacture extremely complex parts without the need for tools or the associated lead times. Nevertheless, like every manufacturing technology, AM has its own characteristic design rules, and combined with the well-known constrains of ceramics, a very particular set of design guidelines must be accounted for in the design phase. Fortunately, many of the design rules of these two aspects combine very well, offering an enormous opportunity for the ceramic industry. This talk will cover the challenges for AM in ceramics and will give examples on how to overcome them.
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