Glass & Optical Materials Division 2016 Award Speakers
Stookey Lecture of Discovery
Sponsored by Corning Incorporated and Coe College
David L. Griscom, impactGlass research international
Title: The life and unexpected discoveries of an intrepid glass scientist
Abstract: Dave Griscom has been a glass physicist specializing in electron spin resonance (ESR) since his 1996 Ph.D. He has advanced the state of the art in his 114 publications as first author. First came borate glasses, then lunar materials as principle investigator in the NASA Lunar Sample Program at the Naval Research Laboratory. His next foray treated metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) issues, adding his ESR discoveries to those studying MOS by other methods. His greatest ESR discovery is what he termed “self-trapped holes” (STHs), created by irradiating pure silica glass at cryogenic temperatures. STHs have since been correlated with fictive temperature. His “homemade” optical spectrometer enabled simultaneous recording of the spectra of four different pure-silica-core fibers in factor-of-two intervals during continuous γ-irradiation from 10 seconds to 6 months, thereby discovering that the enormous attenuation peak near one hour later decreased monotonically …going ever lower upon re-irradiation, thus “radiation hardening” them. Next he developed first- and second-order fractal kinetics in order to understand — and successively extrapolate! — the peculiar radiation-induced-attenuation growth curves of Ge-doped-silica-core fibers extensively recorded by others but never before understood. Griscom also delved into impact geology, identifying significant deposits of quartz silt as ejecta from the Chesapeake Bay crater.
Biography: B.S. in Physics, Carnegie-Mellon University, 1960 Ph.D. in Physics, Brown University, 1966. Fellow, American Ceramic Society, Chairman of the Glass and Optical Materials Division, 1991-1992, Fellow, American Physical Society. Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science. Member, Geological Society of America, Research Physicist at Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Washington, DC, 1967-2001. Half time Program Manager at DARPA, 1989-1983. Fulbright-García Robles Fellow at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 3 months 1997. Invited Professor of Research at Universités de Paris-6 & 7, Lyon-1, and St-Etienne (all France) and Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2001-2003. Adjunct Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arizona, 2004-2005. Consultancy: impactGlass research international, 2005-present. Winner, of the N.F. Mott Award 1993, the Otto Schott Research Award 1995, and honored by Brown University with a “Distinguished Graduate School Alumnus Award.” Author, 198 papers in peer-reviewed journals and books, Principal Author of 114 of these. Current Hirsch Index 55.
George W. Morey Award
Sponsored by PPG Industries
Hellmut Eckert, Institute of Physics in São Carlos, University of São Paulo, Brazil & Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Münster, Germany
Title: Spying with spins on messy materials: 50 years of glass structure elucidation by NMR spectroscopy
Abstract: Glasses remain a focus of attraction to fundamental researchers and materials engineers alike. The desire of controlling physical property combinations by compositional design inspires the search for fundamental structural concepts describing the short and medium-range order of the glassy state. From its early beginnings about 50 years ago, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been making significant contributions towards this objective. Being element-selective, inherently quantitative as well as selective to the local environment, NMR in many ways presents an ideal experimental tool of structural investigation of glasses. Over the years, substantial NMR methods development, along with advances in the theoretical understanding of NMR parameters have produced an inventory of powerful complementary techniques offering new concepts of medium-range order to glass scientists and useful structure/property correlations to materials engineers. The lecture will sketch this trajectory from the early beginnings to the present state of the art, with a focus on applications to ionically conductive and photonic glasses.
Biography: Hellmut Eckert obtained his PhD in physical chemistry 1982 at the University of Münster and subsequently held postdoctoral positions at Rutgers University and Caltech. In 1987 he started his academic career as an assistant professor at the chemistry department of UC Santa Barbara, and became a full professor of inorganic chemistry in 1993. In 1995 he accepted a chair of physical chemistry at the University of Münster (Germany). In 2011 he took a permanent leave of absence from his German university to accept a titular professorship at the Sao Carlos Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo. He served as an editor of the journal Chemistry of Materials (1998-2011) and is one of the founding editors (since 2010 Editor-in-chief) of the journal Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. He has published about 460 articles, book chapters and reviews, which have attracted more than 10,000 citations, resulting in an h-index of 47. He is the recipient of the Haber prize (1989) awarded by the German Society of Physical Chemists.
The focus of Eckert’s research program is the development and application of modern solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) strategies for the structural characterization of glasses. He has published more than 200 contributions in this area, offering new concepts and detailed quantitative insights into the structural organization of many oxide, fluoride, chalcogenide, and mixed-network glasses. In addition he has published about 100 papers devoted to structural NMR analyses of other types of disordered or amorphous matter (sol-gel hybrids, guest-host systems, nanocomposites, vapor deposits, alloys etc.) and about 100 papers on the development of new NMR methodologies and their validation on crystalline model systems.
During the period in Santa Barbara (1987-1995) the Eckert group was the first to apply modern high-resolution solid-state NMR techniques for the structural analysis of non-oxide chalcogenide glasses, providing new and comprehensive structural concepts for the chemical bond distribution and the short range order of these ion-conducting and infrared transparent materials. The unique approach of his work has been to develop advanced multi-dimensional NMR techniques that measure the internuclear magnetic dipole-dipole couplings, which bear a quantitative relationship with interatomic distances. During his tenure in Münster (1995-2011) Eckert developed these techniques systematically for structural applications beyond the first coordination sphere (medium range order). This work has offered new important insights into the quantitative connectivity distribution in mixed network former glasses and the spatial ion distributions in single- and mixed-alkali glasses, offering new insights into structure/function relations in glassy solid electrolytes.
Following his recent move to Sao Paulo, Eckert has added a new research line to his agenda, concerned with the structural characterization of rare-earth doped photonic glasses and hybrid materials. These systems present a particular challenge to NMR elucidation because of their paramagnetism. By combining NMR methods with modern pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance techniques his group obtained new important information on the rare-earth ions` environments and their spatial distributions, offering important guidance for the design of new glasses, glass ceramics and hybrids with improved optical properties.
Darshana and Arun Varshneya Frontiers of Glass Science Lecture
Matteo Ciccotti, Professeur de l’ESPCI, Laboratorie de Science et Ingenierie de la Matiere Molle, France
Title: Multiscale investigation of stress-corrosion crack propagation mechanisms in oxide glasses
Abstract: Fracture propagation involves the coupling of many length scales ranging from the sample loading geometry to the molecular level. In brittle materials, the length scales of the damage process zone are reduced to a submicrometric scale and the coupling with the macroscopic scale is expected to be the domain of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). However, although 2D elastic analyses are generally adequate to describe the sample deformation at macroscopic scales, a micromechanical analysis requires the use of 3D mechanical tools due to the crack front local curvature and to the corner point singularities at the intersection between the crack front and the external surfaces of the sample.
In this lecture we will present a thorough investigation of the slow crack growth of a sharp crack in oxide glasses in the stress-corrosion regime, combining numerical and experimental analyses from the millimetre scale to the nanoscale range. The principal aim of the study is identifying the length and time scales of the mechanisms of damage and interaction between water and glass, which have been the subject of an extensive debate in last decades.
Subcritical crack propagation was performed on Double Cleavage Drilled Compression samples under controlled atmosphere. Post-mortem and in-situ observations were performed by optical techniques and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A 2D/3D LEFM analysis of this sample was realized to ensure the proper mechanical coupling of all length scales.
The mechanical effect of capillary condensation observed by AFM at the crack tip was modeled according to a cohesive zone model. This allowed notably to evaluate the negative Laplace pressure in the liquid and to explain the crack closure mechanism in glass. The analysis of AFM in-situ images of crack propagation by an integrated digital image correlation (DIC) technique reveals the adequacy of the proper elastic solutions to describe the surface displacement field down to a distance of 10 nm from the crack tip. A critical analysis of the height correlation functions performed on AFM images of the fracture surfaces does not reveal any process zone larger than 10 nm in agreement with the conclusions of DIC. In agreement with complementary recent observations in the literature, the length scales of damage in the stress-corrosion fracture of glass are confined to a range of few nanometres from the crack surface.
Biography: Matteo Ciccotti is professor of mechanics and physics of materials at École Supérieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielles de la Ville de Paris (ESPCI Paristech, France) since 2010. He graduated in applied physics at Università di Bologna (Italy) in 1996, where he also got his PhD in 2000 studying the mechanics of rocks and its relation to earthquake dynamics. He then worked as a CNRS researcher at Université de Montpellier 2 (France) on the nanomechanics of slow crack propagation in oxide glasses. The present research projects at the Laboratory of Soft Matter Science and Engineering at ESPCI Paristech concern the space and time scales of the dissipation mechanisms in the fracture mechanics of polymers and composite materials. Three main actual subjects are 1) the adherence energy of soft polymer adhesives; 2) the fracture energy of glassy polymers confined into glass fiber composites; 3) the dissipation mechanisms during the impact failure of a laminated windshield.
Darshana and Arun Varshneya Frontiers of Glass Technology Lecture
Matthew J. Dejneka, research fellow, Corning Glass Research Group
Title: Chemically strengthened glasses and glass-ceramics
Abstract: Glass is scratch resistant, strong, and chemically durable, making it ideal for touch screens and covers for displays. Unfortunately, the strength of most glasses can be quickly degraded to less than 1% of its theoretical strength by handling due to the introduction of flaws which act as stress concentrators. We developed fusion formable glasses that can be ion exchanged to 800MPa compressive stress on the surface and achieve 50 microns depth of compression which better retain the strength of the pristine fusion surface after handling and use. We then discovered glasses with intrinsically superior damage resistance that withstood even greater loads before flaws could be introduced. These glasses have now been used to help protect more than 4.5 billion devices worldwide. Finally, we made the first fusion formable glass-ceramics and devised methods to pattern them without sacrificing strength.
Biography: Matthew J. Dejneka is a research fellow in Corning’s Glass Research group in Corning, NY. Matt earned a Ph.D. in Ceramic Science and Engineering under the auspices of a National Defense Science and Engineering Fellowship at Rutgers University in 1995 and joined the glass-ceramics research group at Corning. He received the 2004 Weyl International Glass Science Award for his innovative work on transparent, ferroelectric, and magnetic glass ceramics, tapered fiber lasers, compositions for optical amplifiers, rare earth doped fluorescent microbarcodes, and negative thermal expansion ceramics. Working with his colleagues, he invented transparent LaF3 glass ceramics, passivation coatings for CaF2 excimer laser optics, high strain point LCD display glasses, and an all fiber filter to suppress multi path interference in Erbium doped fiber amplifiers. Matt developed new fiberization techniques for soft glass and used these novel methods to make fiber lasers and broad band amplifiers. He co-invented the tapered fiber laser and fabricated high NA rectangular core Ytterbium doped fibers that delivered 1W of 980 nm single mode output. In 2005 he earned the Karl Schwartzwalder Professional Achievement in Ceramic Engineering (PACE) Award. Matt has organized seven sessions, one symposium, and the 2006 Glass & Optical Materials Division Meeting. He also served as president of Keramos from 2004-2006 and has been a member of ACerS since 1988.
Currently he is investigating chemically strengthened glasses and is a co-inventor of Corning® Gorilla® Glass which has been used to protect 4.5 billion devices. He is the author or co-author of 40 papers and holds 44 patents.
Lunch will be available at no cost on a first come, first served basis to attendees of the Kreidl Award Lecture.
Norbert J. Kreidl Award for Young Scholars
Lan Li, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Title: Materials and devices for mechanically flexible integrated photonics
Abstract: Flexible integrated photonics is a new technology that has only started to burgeon in the past few years, which opens up emerging applications ranging from flexible optical interconnects to conformal sensors on biological tissues. In this talk, we will discuss the synthesis and characterization of chalcogenide glass (ChGs) and amorphous titanium dioxide materials for flexible integrated photonics. Our technology capitalizes on the exceptional properties of these amorphous materials including broadband infrared (IR) transparency, wide accessible range of refractive indices, as well as low deposition temperature to realize monolithic photonic integration on plastic substrates. High-index-contrast multi-layer 2.5-D photonic devices with record optical performance were fabricated using simple, low-cost contact lithography. A novel multi-neutral-axis design is implemented to render the structure highly mechanically flexible, allowing repeated bending of the devices down to sub-millimeter bending radius without measurable optical performance degradation. We further demonstrated hybrid integration of active optoelectronic components onto the flexible photonic platform, which potentially enables complete system-on-a-flexible-chip solutions for a wide cross-section of applications.
Biography: Lan Li received her PhD degree in Materials Science and Engineering from University of Delaware in 2016. She has been the postdoctoral associate in Prof. Juejun Hu’s group in the Department of Materials Science & Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology since spring 2016. Her research interest focuses on nanophotonic materials and devices, infrared optical glass materials, integrated flexible photonic device fabrication and characterization.